An individual member organization of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), it shall be known formally as the Academy of Medical and Biological Engineering. It will be referred to herein as “the Academy”. It shall consist of elected fellows.



The Academy is a part of IFMBE, responsible to the IFMBE General Assembly and its Administrative Council, and operates under the auspices of the IFMBE Constitution and Bylaws. The Academy is established by IFMBE for the following purposes.

    1. The Academy is to conduct programs, which will serve to encourage young people entering the field and their development in the early stages of their career.
    2. The Academy, upon request of the IFMBE Administrative Council, also shall serve as a resource for IFMBE and its various units.

The Academy’s activities will be carried out by individuals honored by their election as Fellows as described later in this Article. Thus, there is a third purpose of the Academy.

  1. The Academy is to honor individuals who have distinguished themselves in the field of medical and biological engineering.

The philosophy underlying the establishment of the Academy by IFMBE is that those who have distinguished themselves in the field have a special responsibility to help those entering the field.



Categories of membership in the Academy include:

  1. Fellow
  2. Fellow Emeritus

Section I. Fellows

Fellows shall be persons who have distinguished themselves in the field of medical and biological engineering. A person shall be qualified to be a candidate for Fellow who has made identifiable contributions in one or both of the following categories:
  1. Important contributions to the theory or practice of medical and biological engineering.
  2. Demonstration of unusual accomplishment in promoting the field of medical and biological engineering.
Fellows shall have participated in and contributed to education and academe, industry, government, and/or health care. Technical and professional interests of the Fellows should reflect the diversity of the field of medical and biological engineering. Fellows shall be appropriately representative of all the member societies of IFMBE.
Section II. Nomination and Election
  1. Candidates for Fellow may be recommended by any member of the Academy, i.e. Fellows or Fellows Emeritus, or by any member society, division, and working group of IFMBE.
  2. The Committee on Membership of the Academy shall select nominees for election from the candidates submitted in accordance with the guidelines and requirements specified in Section I of Article III.
  3. Election of Fellows shall be determined by a mail or email ballot of existing Fellows. Election shall be by a 2/3 majority of ballots received by the time specified in the ballot instructions.
  4. Failure to receive sufficient votes for election to Fellow shall not constitute prejudice for the future election.
  5. Elections of Fellows shall be carried out in between the World Congresses according to need, but not more often than once a year.
Section III. Membership Privileges and Limitations
Fellows in good standing shall be entitled to hold elective or appointive office, to attend all open meetings and functions of IFMBE, and to vote on any question coming before the Academy.
Section IV. Fellow Emeritus
Fellow Emeritus status may be conferred upon Fellows who meet the following criteria:
  1. They have been Fellows in good standing.
  2. They are fully retired or have emeritus status from a university; are fully retired from business or industry; are at least 65 years of age; or have been a Fellow in good standing for at least 10 years.
Fellows who meet the above criteria may apply for emeritus status if they wish. Upon conferral of emeritus status, membership fees shall be reduced to an amount set by the Academy’s Governing Council. Emeritus Fellows shall have the privileges of fellowship with the following exceptions.
  1. They shall not be eligible to vote.
  2. They shall not be eligible to hold office.
Section V. Membership Fees, Dues, and Assessments
  1. Fellows shall pay annual dues to be determined by the Academy’s Governing Council.
  2. Annual dues shall be payable to the IAMBE account on January 1 or upon election to the Academy.
  3. There shall be a one-time initiation fee to be paid by all Fellows. This fee will be established by the Academy’s Governing Council based on costs for initiations.
  4. All Fellows whose dues are in arrears shall receive a second notice after 90 days. Those not responding after 90 days following the second notice may have their names removed from the list of Fellows.
  5. No dues shall be refunded to any Fellow whose membership terminates for any reason.
  6. Fellow emeritus membership dues shall be established by the Academy’s Governing Council.


  1. The General Meeting of the Academy shall be held at least once every three years at the World Congress of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. This shall be the regular business meeting of the Academy.
  2. Notice of the General Meeting shall be mailed or transmitted to all Fellows at least 90 days prior to the meeting.
  3. A quorum for the General Meeting shall be constituted by 25% of the Fellows of Academy or 100, whichever is less.
  4. Special meetings may be called by the Chair of the Academy, or by one-third of the Fellows; provided that notice of the meeting is mailed or transmitted at least 90 days prior to the date of the meeting. Quorums for special meetings shall be constituted by 25 Fellows.
  5. Business may be conducted without a quorum present, but any decisions reached must subsequently be ratified by a two thirds majority of the voting Fellows.
  6. Robert’s Rules of Order shall be govern the conduct of all meetings.
  7. Special issues may be decided by mail ballot. Mail ballots shall require a two thirds majority of the voting Fellows.


Section I. Officers
Officers of the Academy shall include:
  1. Chair
  2. Chair Elect
  3. Past Chair
  4. Secretary
Section II. Governing Council
The Governing Council shall consist of:
  1. The four officers
  2. Five members-at-large
The Governing Council shall be convened at intervals of not more than three and a half years. A majority of members of the Governing Council shall constitute a quorum.
Section III. Election of Officer and Members-at-large
  1. Officers and members-at-large shall be elected by a mail or email ballot prior to the General Meeting of the Academy held every three years at the World Congress of Medical and Biological Engineering.
  2. The terms of office for the Chair, Chair Elect, Past Chair, Secretary and members-at-large shall nominally be three years.
  3. A member-at-large may serve only two three-year terms; officers may only serve a single term, with the exception of the secretary who may serve two three-year terms.
  4. Newly elected officers and members-at-large shall assume office at the end of the General Meeting of the Academy, serving until the end of the next General Meeting, approximately three years later.
  5. Candidates for all elected positions shall be active Fellows in good standing. All candidates must consent to serve and abide by these bylaws.
  6. Candidates may be nominated either by a process involving a nominating committee or by petition of 10% of the Fellows with the prior written consent of the nominee.
Section IV. Vacancies
  1. Any officer may be removed by a two-thirds vote of all Fellows in good standing.
  2. If vacancies, for whatever reason, of the position of Chair occur, the Chair-Elect will temporarily assume the office of Chair. If more than 21 months remain of the term of office, the office shall be filled by election by mail ballot. Otherwise the Governing Council shall appoint a new Chair from the membership of the Academy.
  3. In the event the position of secretary or one of the member-at-large positions becomes vacant, the Governing Council will appoint a replacement from the Academy or make some other provision as may seem expedient for the discharge of duties of the office concerned, until an election can be held either at the next General Meeting or by mail ballot.


Section I. The Chair
  1. Shall preside at all regular and special meetings.
  2. Shall serve as Chair of the Governing Council.
  3. May call special meetings of the Academy and Academy committees.
  4. Shall appoint Academy committee chairs with the approval of the Governing Council.
  5. Shall assure that the Academy is represented on the IFMBE Administrative Council by someone from the Governing Council who shall serve as a non-voting member.
Section II. The Secretary
  1. Shall keep accurate records of all Academy meetings.
  2. Shall transmit to the Academy’s Governing Council and the IFMBE Administrative Council summaries of all business conducted by the Academy.
  3. Shall maintain a list of Fellows. Such list shall be sent to each IFMBE Member Society each Fellow, and the IFMBE Administrative Council annually.
  4. Shall maintain a current copy of the bylaws.
  5. Shall be responsible that meeting notices are duly transmitted.
  6. Shall conduct correspondence as directed by the Academy.
Section III. Chair Elect
  1. Shall assume the responsibilities of the Chair in his/her absence.
  2. Shall serve as a member of the Governing Council.
Section IV. Past Chair
  1. Shall serve as Chair of the Nominating Committee.
  2. Shall serve as a member of the Governing Council.
Section V. The Governing Council
  1. Shall review and act on such business that may come before the Council. The Governing Council shall provide background and make recommendations to the General Meeting for all items of business requiring action by vote of the Fellows.
  2. Shall appointment committees as provided in these bylaws.
  3. Shall have responsibility for the fiscal affairs of the Academy.


All standing and ad-hoc committees of the Academy are to be limited to business conducted for the effective operation of the Academy. In no case will these committees represent IFMBE to the public, agencies, or other organizations outside IFMBE without expressed formal assent given by the IFMBE Administrative Council.

Section I. Standing Committees
1 Nominating Committee
a) Shall solicit candidates to be nominated for the offices of Secretary and Chair Elect and for Members-at-large.
b) Shall assure that all nominations are in compliance with the bylaws.
c) Shall be chaired by the Past Chair of the Academy and include three additional Fellows who shall be appointed by the Governing Council.
2 Membership Committee

a) Shall recommend criteria and procedures for admission and termination of Fellows and Emeritus Fellows as specified in the bylaws.
b) Shall receive and review nominations for membership in the Academy.
c) Shall conduct elections of Fellows.
d) Shall be chaired by a Fellow of the Academy and in addition consist of upto eleven Fellows appointed by the Governing Council.

3 Bylaws Committee
a) Shall receive and review recommendations for changes in the bylaws.
b) Shall notify the membership of any pending action on the bylaws three months in advance of the General Meeting.
c) Shall consist of a chair and two Fellows appointed by the Chair of the Academy.
Section II. Ad Hoc Committees
Ad hoc committees may be appointed by the Chair with the approval of the Governing Council as deemed necessary. An ad hoc committee shall limit its activities to the accomplishment of the task to which it is appointed. Upon completion of this task, the committee shall be dissolved. An ad hoc committee shall become a standing committee upon amendment of these bylaws as prescribed in Article X.


The Academy is to operate under financial guidelines as specified by the IFMBE Treasurer.
Funds accruing to the Academy, e.g. dues, gifts, or specific grants, are to be used in direct support of activities relating specifically to the purpose for which the Academy has been established.
Academy funds are to be deposited in the IFMBE treasury, but maintained in a separate account.


Upon approval by the IFMBE General Assembly of the establishment of the Academy, an initial core membership of Founding Fellows will be selected using the following procedure.
  1. A Committee on Membership, composed of a Chair and twelve additional members, will be appointed based on the recommendation of the IFMBE Administrative Council and the approval of a two thirds majority of the voting members of the IFMBE General Assembly.
  2. These 13 individuals are themselves to have made distinguished contributions to the field and thus will be members of the initial group of Founding Fellows. They also are to be representative of the diversity of the field and of the various member societies of IFMBE.
  3. The Chair will then seek recommendations of candidates from IFMBE member societies, divisions and working groups. Members of the Committee on Membership also may make recommendations of candidates.
  4. This duly appointed Committee on Membership will then select from recommendations made to them an additional 85-100 individuals to be Founding Fellows.
  5. These Founding Fellows are to be inducted at the next International Conference for Medical and Biological Engineering.
  6. The initiation fee for Founding Fellows will be set by the IFMBE Administrative Council.



  1. Submissions of petitions for amendments to these bylaws may only be made by the Governing Council, the IFMBE Administrative Council, 10 Fellows or 3 Member Societies. Submissions shall be made in writing to the Secretary at least four months before the General Meeting.
  2. Proposed amendments must be transmitted to the membership three months prior to the General Meeting.
  3. Changes to these bylaws may be enacted by a two-third majority vote of the General Meeting and with final approval of a majority vote of the voting members of the IFMBE General Assembly.


Approved by IFMBE General Assembly, mail ballot May, 1995.
Approved by IFMBE General Assembly, Mail ballot on name change. December 10, 1996.
Approved by IAMBE Fellows Email balloted on changes proposed by the IAMBE General Meeting in Sydney, 28th August 2003, January 31, 2004
To be approved by IFMBE General Assembly